It can be measured through inter-coder reliability for which a range of measures and indices have been developed. Providing only an introduction to the theoretical argument, the need for further theoretical discussion as well as the empirical testing of the argument is obvious. Besides, a careful description of the data and the development of categories in which to place behaviors or process have proven to be important steps in the process of analyzing the data. From Underground to Elite: Figure 1 shows the basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis from the initial theory to the final analysis and interpretation. Basics of qualitative research.

On the other hand, the CA may also be responsible for certain narrowing in the possibilities of thinking about qualitative research and the metatheoretical and epistemological issues involved in it. If necessary the system of categories is re-examined and revised, which necessitates a reappraisal of the material. Scientific models in philosophy of science. Therefore they argue in favor of a theory-based category system, which is more open and can be changed during extraction when relevant information turns up but does not fit into the category system. I indirectly argue in Section 5. The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what kind of other errors can be made or occur in conducting content analysis ibid. The object of qualitative content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication, i.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – Semantic Scholar

MAYRING’s qualitative content analysis tries to overcome these shortcomings of classical quantitative content analysis by applying a systematic, theory-guided approach to text analysis using a category system cf.

The concern is with the general statements and phrases: Force and influence in content analysis: Pre-analysis, which consists of material selection corpus to be analyzed articles, transcribed interviews, etc.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

Naturalistic inquiry and the saturation concept: It is argued this method of analysis must go beyond the mere description or organization of data through categorization, focusing instead in a theorization of the psychological phenomenon under investigation. HARTLEYih instance, states that case study research “consists of a detailed investigation, srudy with data collected over a period of time, of phenomena, within their context,” with the aim being “to provide an analysis of the context and processes which illuminate the theoretical issues being studied” p.


Mayring, Philipp a, June. Qualitative Social Research6 2.

kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 2nd ed. At the same time, researchers who dominate the CA and make use rexearch their technical compliance with the recommended procedures sometimes forget to critically consider relative aspects to the inferential processes that underpin their qualitative and quantitative interpretations, an aspect that will be discussed in more detail in this article.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

For example, Massimi states that the phenomena are not images or shadows of the real world, but objects of experience to which we have access only through scientific theories. Above, we said that qualitative content analysis aims to preserve the advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation see Section 4. Remember that the history of science is replete with examples in which the phenomena are detected in process of observation without a prior theory to explain them or to provide them.

Figures and Topics from this paper. Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and evaluated. Therefore, the author strongly recommends all researchers who are conducting case studies to use and apply qualitative content analysis in their research endeavors. Data accumulated by different methods but bearing on the same issue are part of what is called the ” multi-method approach”: At the end of this section, quality criteria and validation issues relevant for qualitative content analysis will be highlighted see Section 4.

The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research – ePubWU

Experteninterviews und qualitative Inhaltsanalyse anaalysis Instrumente rekonstruierender Untersuchungen. For this the text is paraphrased, generalized or abstracted and reduced. Kombination und Integration qualitativer und quantitativer Analyse [31 paragraphs]. In the case of using qualitative content analysis in case study research, triangulation takes actually place on two different levels.

According to YIN a, p. Besides, in the course of the last century especially the second half of itthe development of qualitative methods showed impressive advances and results, thus helping to gain more acceptance not only in the field of social research cf.

Besides, papers and essays in English are crucial to help qualitative content analysis gain attention and dissemination internationally as well.

Kohlbacher f. 2006.the use of qualitative content analysis in case study research

According to YIN a a major strength of case study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence because the use of multiple sources of evidence in case studies allows an investigator to address a broader range of historical, attitudinal, and behavioral issues YIN, a, pp. This aualitative be a conciliatory way between, on one hand, the search for empirical adequacy of the theoretical scaling process that may involve the proposal of a new theory, perhaps more suitable to understand the data inductionand on the other hand, the attempt of “theory test”, which consists in an effort to conform the data to the prior theory that provided the frame to the theoretical model kohlbachfr the empirical research deduction.


On second level, triangulation takes place by applying a method of analysis qualitative content analysis that has not been particularly developed for this 2060.the to a different research design case study research. Thus, a clear and concise definition of qualitative research can hardly be found.

Some questions and epistemological issues are introduced concerning the operationalization of both these mechanisms in Content Analysis and the limits of treating the later merely as an ad hoc resource. In fact, case studies seem to be the preferred strategy when “how or “why” questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus is on a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context YIN,p.

The consideration of this role model seems essential, because in its absence, the researcher is faced with a series of data which, by themselves, are not able to say much about a more stable phenomenon, although this stability, in the case of research in psychology, is provisional. This paper aims to analyze the inferential processes underpinning interpretation in qualitative Content Analysis and that are related with a triad compounded by theory, phenomenon and datum.

Content analysis remains one of the most widely used research strategies because.